In some cities the cost of urban transit has been reduced by the introduction of articulated buses (two passenger units pulled by a single engine). Ocean transportation is important to Canada because about one-third of all that Canada produces is exported by ship to customers overseas, carried by large, oceangoing vessels that serve Canada's major ports. This has been made possible by technological improvements in valves, compressors and friction-reducing agents. Today, enormous cranes at a modern port may load a large oceangoing liner with containerized freight in half a day. This is why it is vital to understand, master, or outsource managed transportation services, such as freight and transportation accounting. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. Canada's "land bridge" is also based on intermodal operations. Black Friday Sale! Pipelines, the unseen carrier, are used for the transportation of petroleum, petroleum products, gas and certain chemicals. Some improvements have come through the development of larger ships that carry far more cargo than earlier ships. Ruppenthal, K., Transportation (2015). Modern conveyor belts handle passengers' baggage faster and more efficiently. Transport Canada’s mandate is to ensure that Canada's transportation system is safe and environmentally sustainable. Railways have always been important in Canada. For the major types of propulsion used in modern forms of transportation, see energy conversion. The Intercolonial Railway was the largest system. Personal transactions have been replaced in many instances by electronic communications. Transportation is treated in a number of articles. In other areas they may compete. Governments have traditionally played an important role in transportation. These motors are used in LRT (light rapid transit) trains. There have been advances in navigation, ship design and ship propulsion. Many of the major transport companies have research departments. Pipelines are also used for the transportation of bitumen from Alberta oil sands projects. The availability of comfortable, convenient and relatively low-cost transportation (by air, train and bus or automobile) has encouraged the development of the travel industry — one of the fastest-growing segments of the Canadian economy (see Tourism). Most urban transportation systems are subsidized. The website for Transport Canada provides information about national programs and regulations concerning Canada's multifaceted transportation system. Corrections? Many cities provide parallel transit services for people with disabilities. the movement of people and freight; one of the key sectors of social production. Canada Steamship Lines operates the largest fleet of self-unloading bulk carriers in the world. Some cities have subways, while others are served by buses (see Bus Transportation), streetcars, electric trolley cars or a mixture of vehicle types. Transportation has and will continue to play an important role in the social and political unity of Canada. Railways are able to transport large quantities of bulk materials over long distances and at relatively low cost, thus enabling the products of Canada's mines, fields and forests to compete effectively in world markets. Pipelines transport enormous quantities of petroleum, gasoline, chemicals and other products, sometimes over long distances. Learning About Humanity on Public Transportation by Chris Gethard Notable moments spent on a subway usually do nothing more than expose human awfulness at its most pronounced… There and Back Again by Nick Paumgarten People who feel they have smooth, manageable commutes evangelize. Much of the early railway construction was financed by British capitalists, Canadian merchants and landowners, and by municipalities. As mentioned, enormous construction subsidies were given to the railways. In these areas transportation and communication are complementary. Other productivity increases have come from utilizing more of the available space and in scheduling vehicles more efficiently. Much research has focused on the linear induction motor which is highly efficient and enables trains to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly. For the place of transportation in law, see air law; carriage of goods; maritime law. Much of this development results from co-operative arrangements between transportation companies, travel agents and the operators of hotels, car rental agencies and other such facilities. Roads and highways later gave access to regions of Canada that had not been served by railways. Some transportation jobs require personnel who are interested in accounting, finance or marketing; others require personnel skilled in labour relations, production management or computer systems. "Piggyback" transportation is an example. Other increases in productivity have come from the use of longer trains, robot locomotives and better train scheduling. Transportation also played an essential role in the history of Prince Edward Island, which was at first unenthusiastic about Confederation; the severe financial problems of its railway played a large part in the decision to join Canada in 1873. The 1995 Open Skies agreement between the US and Canada resulted in an explosion of trans-border services. Trucks are used in a variety of ways. Most Canadian cities have taxi service. The shippers of petroleum, chemicals and other products in liquid or gaseous form also use pipelines. Motor carrier productivity has also increased because of the development of more fuel-efficient engines and because of experimentation with the use of lower grade fuel. Better communications and electronic signals systems make it possible to operate far more trains over a track than was possible with more primitive manual signals. The transportation and communications industries have always been related. The National Airports Policy (NAP) was established in July 1994. Passengers usually have several transport alternatives available. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Above average increases in freight costs could indicate your expenses are cutting into your bottom line. For many years the railways have carried export grain at far less than it cost them to haul it. Railways were responsible, in part, for some of the provinces joining Canadian confederation. Some taxi companies enjoy a monopoly. Some of these work with vehicle and equipment manufacturers in the development and adaptation of new technology, some engage in market research and some make contributions to more basic research. New inventions, technological change and human ingenuity have resulted in many changes in Canada's transport. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/technology/transportation-technology, History World - History of Transport and Travel, History Learning Site - Transport 1750 to 1900, Smithsonian National Museum of American History - America on the Move - Transportation, transportation - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), transportation - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Aviation technology has changed radically in recent decades and operates more efficiently. A number of large companies operate trucks. Research has been done on the use in ships of powdered coal and other petroleum extenders, and substitutes for fuelling ships. The great distances between mines, farms, forests and urban centres make efficient transport systems essential to the economy so that natural and manufactured goods can move freely through domestic and international markets. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. One or more companies may be given the exclusive right to pick up passengers at airports, railway stations or other areas where passengers originate. Governments then began to regulate the rates charged by … Some provinces permit a truck (or tractor) to pull more than one trailer. After suffering significant losses in the 1980s, VIA Rail discontinued service on several lines, but continues its cross-country passenger rail service. After the railways were built, they had enormous power over users of their services. CNBC.com covers transportation industry news, including airlines, auto, roads and railways, and updates on freight, trucking, and logistics. Both of Canada's major railways have trucking divisions. Shipments from Japan and Hong Kong destined for Europe can move by ship via the Panama Canal. Transportation videos and latest news articles; GlobalNews.ca your source for the latest news on Transportation . Some system has to be available for the transmission of orders and the movement of shipping documents and other shipping details. When two modes of transportation are coordinated, there may be a junction or terminal at which the transfer is made. Most of Canada's urban areas have some form of public transportation. Part of the confederation arrangement provided that the federal government would assume the railway's enormous debt. Today, however, railway passenger trains face intense competition from other forms of transport. Or, by using Canada as a land bridge, they can move by water to Vancouver or other western ports, then by rail to one of Canada's eastern ports, and again by water to their European destinations, saving a significant amount of time. Before the development of steam propulsion, armies depended for mobility on the muscles of men and animals and the force of the wind. 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