piceae), is the most prevalent and destructive fungal disease of Norway and Colorado blue spruce. Occasionally, it also infests white spruce, P. glauca , red spruce, P. rubens , and Colorado blue spruce, P. pungens . Both diseases occur because of fungus growth on the trees, but each has different symptoms. Several have minor infestations of eastern spruce gall adelgid; two exhibit significant infestations that make removal of the galls impractical to impossible. When planting new spruce trees in the future, consider planting other spruces such as Norway or White Spruces, which are much less susceptible to this disease. Spruce Problems (pest and Cultural Issues) Diagnosis and management recommendations diseases • insects • weeds trees & woody ornamentals Blue spruce Jason Sharman, Vitalitree, Bugwood.org White spruce needle (white stomata— natural plant openings) Joseph O’Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Norway spruce Introduction. Thank you. Eggs hatch into young nymphs that overwinter. It is also a popular selection for bonsai. Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. For optimal results be sure to thoroughly cover the bases of buds. 1). During this period of time mature winged individuals fly from galls to lay eggs on host needles. Required fields are marked *. Stigmina affects all spruce. I have copied the fact sheet on this insect: The eastern spruce gall adelgid is a key pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies , in northeastern United States. How to Care for a Diseased Blue Spruce Tree. Each female lays between 100-200 eggs that normally are laid in small groups. Cytospora canker, needle cast, and rust diseases, mites, eastern Spruce gall adelgid, Cooley’s Spruce gall adelgid, bagworms, spruce budworm larvae, sawfly larvae, Cone scales are consumed by caterpillars, and barks are fed by moths, Used for paper and timber production, making the vitamin C enriched spruce beer, constructing musical instruments. • Eastern spruce galls mainly affect Norway and white spruce. In the past, literature referred to this species as an aphid. is an ecologically and economically important tree species that comprises ∼30 per cent of the growing stock volume (Finnish Statistical Yearbook of Forestry, 2012).Since the 1900s, Norway spruce has mainly been used for mechanical pulping and sawn goods for structural purposes. Feeding by this species stimulates the formation of a gall at the base of current year's growth. Please advise about the best way to rid my trees of these pests (e.g. Your email address will not be published. Norway spruce is susceptible to a variety of diseases, but the two main ones are cytospora canker disease and Rhizosphaera needle cast. disease kill the tree. In the traditional Austrian medical science, the shoot tip of the tree could be either consumed as a healing beverage or used as an ointment, inhaler, bathing lotion for treating gastrointestinal tracts, infections, respiratory and skin problems. Avoid planting spruce in heavy shade. Plants may be sprayed before bud break. disease kill the tree. If you notice brown dry spots on your Spruce Spider Mites may be the culprit. When properly cared for, the Norway Spruce rarely has issues with pests and disease. Horticultural oil removes the glaucous bloom (blue color) from both Colorado blue spruce and Koster spruce. At planting time, landowners should consider trees other than blue spruce, since it … The number of the tree’s synonym crosses 150. Be sure to monitor for outbreaks of spruce spider mite when using treatment materials that may impact mite predators. One generation occurs each year in Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvania it is a pest of plants in landscapes, nurseries, and Christmas tree plantations. When planting new spruce trees in the future, consider planting other spruces such as Norway or White Spruces, which are much less susceptible to this disease. Feeding stimulates most plant cells to produce an individual gall where each needle should develop. © 2020 (Coniferous Forest). Cytospora canker rarely affect… In the past, literature referred to this species as an aphid. Your email address will not be published. 1. They remain there until the galls are fully developed, begin to turn brown, and open from late July through October. Symptoms of both needle cast diseases look similar to each other. : horticultural oil spray, insecticidal spray, systemic soaking drench, other?) The eastern spruce gall adelgid is a key pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies , in northeastern United States. The Norway spruce is a beautiful ornamental tree species. Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora kunzei (also known as Valsa kunzei var. Young nymphs hatch from eggs in 7-10 days and crawl into the bud and among the bud scales. Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. In the spring they resume feeding and mature into adults. Colorado spruce is the major host of rhizosphaera; Norway spruce is usually resistant. The blue spruce tree (Picea pungens), named for its sharp-ended needles, is a coniferous evergreen member of … Similarities and differences between the two diseases exist. • Cooley spruce galls are mainly on Colorado blue spruce and white spruce. To manage overwintering life stages of this pest, apply registered insecticides according to label directions from mid-September through early October. The classic symptoms of needle cast include brownish purple discoloration and eventual death of older needles, while current-year needles show no symptoms (Figure 1). Treat with insecticidal soap for minor infections and Bifenthrin or … The Norway Spruce is wind, cold, and deer resistant. -Tom Koellhoffer. Eggs are covered with white waxy filaments. Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. Two needle cast diseases occur in North Dakota: Rhizosphaera needle cast and Stigmina needle cast. Its scientific name ‘abies’ means ‘fir-like’ in Latin. Occasionally, Cytospora canker is found on Douglas-fir, hemlock, and larch. The pyramid-shape makes it as a viable choice for Christmas trees. Spruce Problems (pest and Cultural Issues) Diagnosis and management recommendations diseases • insects • weeds trees & woody ornamentals Blue spruce Jason Sharman, Vitalitree, Bugwood.org White spruce needle (white stomata— natural plant openings) Joseph O’Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Norway spruce Spruce spider mites This mite primarily feeds on older, inner needles, causing needles to look pale, yellow and sickly. All rights reserved. Stigmina affects all spruce. Once in the bud, they begin feeding on the new tissue. Fig. Old Tjikko, a clone of Norway spruce is believed to be 9, 550 years old, being the oldest living tree in the world. Also, the use of certain insecticides may cause outbreaks of spruce spider mite, mainly because of their effect on mite predators. Find them at the tips of new growth. A second alternative is to treat infested plants in April prior to budbreak, before females mature and start laying eggs. ChemicalApply horticultural oil according to label directions as a dormant treatment, before new growth starts, when temperatures remain above freezing. Article was last reviewed on 26th December 2019. In Pennsylvania it is a pest of plants in landscapes, nurseries, and Christmas tree plantations. Occasionally, it also infests white spruce, P. glauca , red spruce, P. rubens , and Colorado blue spruce, P. pungens . Infested trees are seldom killed, but the aesthetics of an infested tree may be greatly reduced. The eastern spruce gall adelgid is a key pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies , in northeastern United States. Pesticides are poisonous. Two possible new diseases of spruce have been seen in the Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic recently. Eastern spruce gall adelgid damage. Susceptibility varies widely among species, but generally trees under stress or growing outside their natural range are more prone to the disease. In Pennsylvania it is a pest of plants in … Management • Management is not necessary on spruce with healthy crowns. There is no chemical labeled for treatment of stigmina at this time. The result is a series of affected needles, which collectively grow into a stunted pineapple-shaped gall. Colorado spruce is the major host of rhizosphaera; Norway spruce is usually resistant. The galls formed by this pest are short, pineapple-shaped growths (Fig. They are usually less than 25 mm long, green at first, but turn brown when they open and the adults emerge. Ask an Expert is made up of groups and individual experts. Siberian spruce is known to be its subspecies but scientists are researching about it as the two trees are extremely similar. Diseases & Pests: Cytospora canker, needle cast, and rust diseases, mites, eastern Spruce gall adelgid, Cooley’s Spruce gall adelgid, bagworms, ... Old Tjikko, a clone of Norway spruce is believed to be 9, 550 years old, being the oldest living tree in the world. This species becomes enclosed in spaces between the swollen round needles. There is no chemical labeled for treatment of stigmina at this time. NonchemicalPruning and destroying green-colored galls during June or July before they open, and therefore, before adults emerge, is practical for light infestations on a few small trees. Another key characteristic of needl… Occasionally, it also infests white spruce, P. glauca , red spruce, P. rubens , and Colorado blue spruce, P. pungens . Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. Females usually start laying eggs about the time buds start to open. Find the pineapple-shaped galls at the base of new shoots. https://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/trees/plants/nor_spruce.html, http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/picabia.pdf, https://homeguides.sfgate.com/spruce-tree-reproduction-seeds-44386.html, https://www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-plant-descriptions/norway-spruce. But, some blue spruce will be much more susceptible to this needle disease throughout their lives, regardless of the weather, and may need continued treatment to maintain a full complement of foliage. In Finland, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Adelgid ; two exhibit significant infestations that make removal of the reach of children, pets, and blue. 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