Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E.  Zostera marina die-offs are triggered by warm summer temperatures, and in Chesapeake Bay shoots were found to stop growing at 20°C and start to die off at 25°C (Reusch et al., 2005). However, at a higher intensity, clam-kicking reduced seagrass biomass to about half of control levels and recovery remained incomplete four years after the end of the experiment (Peterson et al., 1987). The impacts of anchoring and mooring in seagrass, Studland Bay, Dorset, UK. & Burkholder, J.M., 2000. Review of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in seagrasses. & Glasgow, H.B. Overall, the biotope is therefore assessed as 'Not Sensitive' to de-oxygenation at the pressure benchmark. Resistance is assessed as 'Low'. European Union Nature Information System (EUNIS) Habitat Classification. A subsequent study by Williams (2001) determined that the observed genetic bottleneck was a consequence of the collection protocol of source material (i.e. For instance, the gastropod Lacuna vincta, an important grazer found in seagrass beds, is near its southern range limit in the British Isles. Intertidal populations of Zostera marina var. Eukarya - Bikonta - Plantae - Viridiplantae - Streptophyta - Tracheophyta - Spermatophytina - Equisetopsida - Magnoliidae - Lilianae - Alismatales - Zosteraceae - Zostera Zostera marina Linnaeus, 1753 For instance, the Atlantic oyster drill Urosalpinx cinerea, a small predatory sea snail is unlikely to have a direct effect on seagrass beds but by preying on mussels and other bivalves, the sea snail could be responsible for a drop in water clarity which in turn will affect Zostera species (see sections below on changes in suspended solids). Contrasting responses in two populations of Zostera noltii Hornem. A sensitivity of ‘High’ has been recorded (‘Low’ resistance, ‘Low’ resilience). The role of current velocity in structuring eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows. The invasive Pacific oyster Magallana gigas can also have negative effects. Indeed the removal of plants can cause chronic turbidity due to continual resuspension of unconsolidated sediments. Therefore, with the pace of ocean warming over the next 50-80 years, UK Zostera marina populations may have the opportunity to adapt to withstand temperatures similar to those observed in Chesapeake Bay. United Kingdom Na h-Eileanan an Iar. Transplanted populations are therefore more sensitive to external stressors such as eutrophication and habitat fragmentation, with a markedly reduced community resilience than natural populations (Hughes & Stachowicz, 2004). Jacobs (1980) noted a larger algal bloom than in previous years after the Amoco Cadiz spill in Roscoff, probably as a result in increased nutrients (from dead organisms and breakdown of oil) and the reduction of algal grazers. & Mazer, S.J., 2003. leaves contain air spaces (lacunae). However, it has been suggested that translocation of plants and propagules may lead to hybridization with local wild populations. The North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. On the use of sediment fertilization for seagrass restoration: a mesocosm study on Zostera marina L. Aquatic Botany, 75 (2), 95-110. founder effect). & Burdick, D.M., 1996. Manley, S.R., Orth, R.J. & Ruiz-Montoya, L., 2015. Zostera marina. Further sediment abrasion may occur in the vicinity to the anchoring blocks due to eddying of currents. Temperature requirements for seed germination and seedling growth of Zostera marina from central Japan. The biotope is therefore considered to have a ‘Medium’ sensitivity to this pressure at the pressure benchmark. Zostera marina can tolerate temperatures between -1 to 25°C with optimum conditions for growth being around 10 to 15°C, and 10°C for seedling development (Hootsmans et al., 1987). The resilience and recovery of seagrass beds to abrasion of the seabed surface depends on the frequency, persistence and extent of the disturbance. & Olsen, J.L., 2011. Chemistry and Ecology, 22 (sup1), 207-S217. The loss of genetic variation can lead to lower rates of seed germination and fewer reproductive shoots, suggesting that there might be long-term detrimental effects for population fitness. Williams (2001) affirms that genetic variation is essential in determining the potential of seagrass to rapidly adapt to a changing environment. In addition, examination of seagrass meadows in Ria Formosa, Portugal, suggested that large and non-fragmented seagrass meadows had higher persistence values than small, fragmented meadows and, hence, that smaller patches were more vulnerable to disturbance (Cunha & Santos, 2009). United Kingdom Swansea. Their ability to withstand marine heatwaves, whereby both seawater and air temperatures (for intertidal populations) are increased, will depend on the duration and severity of the heatwave, and the ability and time available for subsequent recovery before the next heatwave hits. are monoecious perennials (Phillips & Menez, 1988; Kendrick et al., 2012; 2017) but may be annuals under stressful conditions (Phillips & Menez, 1988). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 201, 199-209. Pollen are long-lived (ca 8 hours) but not ideally for long-distance dispersal so that the pollen of Zostera noltei is estimated to travel up to 10 m, while that of Zostera marina travels up to 15 m, although most are intercepted by the canopy within 0.5 m (Zipperle et al., 2011; McMahon et al., 2014; Kendrick et al., 2012; 2017). When water quality conditions do not return to their original state, recovery of seagrass beds may not occur at all (Giesen et al., 1990). The consequences of enhanced sedimentation for seagrass beds depend on several factors such as the life history stage as well as the depth and timing of burial. Increasing levels of carbon dioxide are causing the pH of surface waters to decrease (see Ocean Acidification). maiusc., genere della famiglia delle Potamogetonacee {{line}} {{/line}} DATA: 1821. They have more slender shoots and are known to be more salinity tolerant than Zostera marina (Jackson et al., 2013). Marine transplantations. Recovery of seagrass beds after the epidemic has been extremely slow or more or less absent in some areas such as the Wadden Sea (Van der Heide et al., 2007). The effects on native species on seagrass species were reviewed by d’Avack et al. (2013) estimated that natural recovery of Zostera marina seagrass beds in the isolated coastal bays of the Virginian coast, USA would have taken between 125 and 185 years to recover from the substantial decline due to wasting disease in the 1930s. Volume 1. Other species associated with seagrass habitats are also affected by changes in temperature. Sensitivity assessment. (Bot.) By consolidating the sediments the plant is responsible for raising mud flats as well as reducing sediment availability elsewhere. Berlin: Springer, pp. & Moss, D., 1998. Munkes et al. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Hence, change towards a coarser sediment type would inhibit seagrasses from becoming established due to a lack of adequate anchoring substratum. Evolution, 52, 330-343. Global Change Biology, 19 (1), 103-132. Therefore, resistance is assessed as ‘High’. Photosynthetic temperature acclimation in two coexisting seagrasses, Zostera marina L. and Ruppia maritima L. Aquatic Botany, 24 (2), 185-197. Checklists containing Zostera marina subsp. (2014) determined that phenotypic plasticity can play an important role in the ability of seagrasses to withstand external pressures such as changes in salinity. Hall et al. The Amoco Cadiz oil spill off Roscoff caused Zostera marina leaves to blacken for 1-2 weeks but had little effect on growth, production or reproduction after the leaves were covered in oil for six hours (Jacobs, 1980). Jacobson, M.Z., 2005. Royal Society Open Science, 3 (1), 150596. A genus of plants of the {Naiadace[ae]}, or Pondweed family. Resistance is therefore considered ‘High’. Recovery will be rapid once conditions return to normal resulting in a ‘High’ resilience score. For example, beds of this biotope in the south-west of Britain may contain conspicuous and distinctive assemblages of Lusitanian fauna such as Laomedea angulata, Hippocampus spp. This restriction to horizontal elongation of the roots makes the recolonization of adjacent bare patches difficult and explains why large beds are only found in gently sloping locations. & Gobler, C.J., 2008. The autecology of Zostera marina in relation to its wasting disease. Seeds and shoots are, however, harvested for extensive transplantation project aimed at promoting seagrass populations in areas denuded by natural or anthropogenic causes. Franssen, S.U., Gu, J., Bergmann, N., Winters, G., Klostermeier, U.C., Rosenstiel, P., Bornberg-Bauer, E. & Reusch, T.B.H., 2011. Spotted by runswo on 2013-08-19. Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland Zostera marina has a wide but patchy distribution in southwest of England, the Solent and Isle of Wight on the south coast, Wales, western Ireland, western and eastern Scotland including Orkney and the Shetland Islands. Evidence shows that seagrass beds found in proximity to a source of organic discharge were severely impacted with important losses of biomass. Kendrick, G.A., Orth, R.J., Statton, J., Hovey, R., Ruiz Montoya, L., Lowe, R.J., Krauss, S.L. & Tompsett, P.E., 2000. United Kingdom … Changes in physiological and morphological characteristics of seagrass plants will enable species to cope with varying degrees of stress for an extended period of time (Maxwell et al., 2014). DOI, Fraser, M.W., Kendrick, G.A., Statton, J., Hovey, R.K., Zavala-Perez, A. DOI, Zimmerman, R.C., Hill, V.J., Jinuntuya, M., Celebi, B., Ruble, D., Smith, M., Cedeno, T. & Swingle, W.M., 2017. Munke et al. The interactive effects of the antifouling herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on the seagrass Zostera marina (L.) Aquatic Toxicology, 66, 293-305. & Hughes, D.J., 1998. Removal of oil intolerant gastropod grazers may result in smothering of seagrasses by epiphytes (Davison & Hughes, 1998). Wasting disease resulted in black lesions on the leaf blades which potentially lead to loss of productivity, degradation of shoots and roots, eventually leading to the loss of large areas of seagrass (Den Hartog, 1987). Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots. To graze on leaves and shoots above the sediment and on rhizomes and roots below, birds reworked the entire upper 1 cm layer of sediment and excavated pits by trampling. Increased temperatures do also encourage the growth of epiphytes increasing the burden upon seagrass beds and making them more susceptible to disease (Rasmussen, 1977). Journal of Sea Research, 71, 41-49. Nelson, T.A., 1997. Recovery was observed to be minimal as the seagrass was replaced by Ruppia maritima. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 741-743. The deployment of fishing gears on seagrass beds results in physical damage to the above surface part of the plants as well as to the root systems. Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Toggle navigation . Zostera marina. Sensitivity assessment. Roots and rhizomes are buried no deeper than 20 cm below the surface (see ‘abrasion’ and ‘penetration and/or disturbance of the substratum below the surface of the seabed’ pressures). European Vascular plants North of the marine environment metals, especially Littorina littorea and Hydrobia ulvae Florida Keys National Sanctuary! First Occurrence of the phylum Tracheophyta class Liliopsida order... 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